Episode 10 – Hormesis: How Radiation is Good for You – Unintended Consequences – Chapter 4 Part 2

Thorium Hormesis
Dr. Zbigniew Jaworowski, MD PhD, DSc, former Chairman of the United Nationals Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCLEAR)
Dr. Zbigniew Jaworowski, UNCLEAR Chairman

Dr. Zbigniew Jaworowski, MD PhD, DSc, former Chairman of the United Nationals Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR):
“What is really surprising, however, is that data collected by UNSCEAR and the Forum show 15% to 30% fewer cancer deaths among Chernobyl emergency workers and about 5% lower solid cancer incidences among the people on the Bryansk district (the most contaminated in Russia) in comparison with the general population. In most irradiated group of these people (mean dose of 40 mSv) the deficit of cancer incidence was 17%.”

Because of their daily exposure to low levels of radiation, which seems to stimulate the DNA repair system, nuclear power plant workers get one third fewer cancers than other workers. They also lose fewer workdays to accidents than office workers.

Knowing this, it is not surprising that, when steel containing cobalt-60 was used to build Taiwan apartments, which exposed 8,000 people to an additional 400 mSv of radiation during some twenty years, cancer incidence was sharply down, not up 30% as Linear No Threshold Theory would have predicted.Instead, the residents’ adaptive response to low- level radiation seems to have provided health benefits. The following chart reveals lower cancer rates for those who receive extra low-level radiation vs. those who only get background radiation.

Sometimes a low radiation exposure of 1-100 mGy, close to yearly background level, appears to act as the “tickle” dose, and reduces cancer rates. Redpath et al 2001

The USA de-funded low dose radiation studies that would have disproved No Threshold Theory.

Dr. Doug Boreham, Norther Ontario School of Medicine – Radiation, space travel and hormesis

In 2015, a study of bacteria grown at a dose rate 1/400 of normal background radiation yielded a reduction in growth, but when the cells were returned to normal background radiation levels, growth rates recovered. The conclusion: Insufficient radiation can yield harmful results.

Life Needs (Some) Radiation – Deep in the Earth, a series of experiments is revealing how life suffers when it’s deprived of background levels of radiation.

Therefore, it seems reasonable that radiation limits should be the same regardless of the source of the radiation. Nevertheless, nuclear plants are held to a standard 100 times higher than coal plants, which actually emit more radiation than nuclear power plants. Per unit of electricity created, the fly ash emitted by a coal power plant exposes the environment to 100 times more radiation than a nuclear plant’s on-site-stored spent fuel – it’s so-called “waste”, 90% of which can be consumed in modern reactors. (Granite buildings irradiate their occupants more than nuclear power plants.)

In 2004, the Radiation Research Society published the Mortality Experience amongst U. S. Nuclear Workers after Chronic Low-Dose Exposure to Ionizing Radiation:

“Workers employed in fifteen utilities that generate nuclear power in the U. S. have been followed for up to 18 years between 1979 and 1997.

“Their cumulative dose from whole body radiation has been determined from records maintained by the facilities and by the Nuclear Regulatory Comm. and the Energy Department.

“Mortality in the cohort … has been analyzed with respect to individual radiation doses. The cohort displays a very substantial healthy worker effect, i.e. considerably lower cancer and non-cancer mortality than the general population.”

The largest circle (red) represents a radiotherapy tumour dose;

The green circle is a recoverable dose to normal tissue near the tumour;

The dark green circle is a dose with a 100% safety record.

The tiny black dot in the smallest circle represents the limit recommended by current regulations due to LTN.

In Radiation and Health, Hendrickson and Maillie wrote “…during radiation therapy for cancer, we’ve learned that chromosome damage to lymphocytes can be reduced by up to 50% if a small dose is given to the cells a few hours before the larger ‘cancer-killing’ dose is administered.

Kerala

In the southwest Indian state of Kerala, children under five have the lowest mortality rate in the country, and life expectancy is 74 despite background radiation rates that can range as high as 30 times the global average.

What can we learn from Kerala?

For thousands of years, Keralites have lived with radiation three times the level that caused the evacuation at Fukushima, where the limit was, on July, 2016, just 20 mSv. In contrast, some sections of Kerala experience 70 mSv, with a few areas measuring 500 – and many Keralites also eat food that is five times as radioactive as food in the United States.

Kerala Beach People Live Longer

Despite these radiation levels, cancer incidence in Kerala is the same as the rate in greater India, which is about 1/2 that of Japan’s and less than a third of the rate in Australia. As the linked article says, “Cancer experts know a great deal about the drivers of these huge differences, and radiation isn’t on the list.”

Kerala Beach

In Kerala, scientists have been working with a genuinely low rate of radiation exposure that mirrors what would have been the case in Fukushima if the Japanese officials hadn’t panicked and needlessly evacuated so many thousands of people.

So, why did they? Partly from fear, but primarily because most radiation protection standards have been derived from LNT bias and studies of Japanese atomic bomb victims who received their dose in a very short time, and being bombed is very different from living for years with a slightly higher radiation level.

Kerala also confirms our modern knowledge of DNA repair- namely that radiation damage is not cumulative at background dose rates up to 30 times normal, and that 70 mSv over a lifetime does nothing. In fact, the concepts of an “annual dose” or a “cumulative dose” are misleading. Instead, evidence reveals that an annual exposure to 100 mSv is comparable to a dose of zero because it doesn’t exceed a person’s capacity for repair.

In the past, when experts discussed these issues they couldn’t consider delivery rates or DNA repair because the power and mechanisms of DNA repair were not known until long after Muller’s LNT theory became dogma. As a consequence, the suffering caused by this obsolete “science” has been immense. (UK radiation expert Malcolm Grimston has characterised the Fukushima evacuation as being “stark raving mad”).

When the Japanese government lifted the evacuation orders because the radiation level had dropped to 20 mSv, 80 % of the residents refused to return because of their fear of radiation despite the fact that the most highly irradiated areas near the plant received only 1/5 of the lowest dose linked to a detectable increase in cancer. (At Guarapari beach in Brazil, residents often bury themselves in sand that yields 340 mSv without ill effect.)

Guarapari Beaches, Brazil

We should be concerned about genuinely dangerous isotopes, but we shouldn’t waste energy and money cleaning up minor radioactivity that doesn’t do anything – but that is what we are doing.

Despite our learning that our cells have amazing repair abilities, LNT advocates still create the radiophobia that caused the extreme evacuations at Fukushima and the flood of needless, fear-induced European abortions that followed Chernobyl. In my opinion, people who refuse to examine the evidence that negates this discredited illusion have abandoned their integrity.

October, 2020. New U.S. Department of Energy research indicates that at low doses, biological reactions are often unrelated to those that occur at high levels. The influential Linear-No-Threshold model, which predicted that acute exposure damage can be extrapolated linearly to low dose exposures—was flawed. In fact, small amounts can have an adaptive positive effect. In addition, it appears that cells communicate with each other and a dose to one affects the cells around it.

The LNT model for cancer induction is not supported by radiobiological data

LOW DOSE RADIATION – The History of the U.S. Department of Energy Research Program

As others have noted, not knowing the truth doesn’t make us ignorant, but not wanting to know the truth most certainly will.

Comparison of Radiation Doses

  • 0.05 µGy – Sleeping next to someone
  • 0.09 µGy – Living within 30 miles of a nuclear power plant for a year
  • 0.1 µGy – Eating one banana
  • 0.3 µGy – Living within 50 miles of a coal power plant for a year
  • 10 µGy – Average daily dose received from natural background
  • 20 µGy – Chest X-ray
  • 40 µGy – A 5-hour airplane flight
  • 600 µGy – mammogram
  • 1 000 µGy – Dose limit for individual members of the public, total effective dose per annum
  • 3 650 µGy – Average yearly dose received from natural background
  • 5 800 µGy – Chest CT scan
  • 10 000 µGy – Average yearly dose received from natural background in Ramsar, Iran
  • 20 000 µGy – single full-body CT scan
  • 175 000 µGy – Annual dose from natural radiation on a monazite beach near Guarapari, Brazil.
  • 5 000 000 µGy – Dose that kills a human with a 50% risk within 30 days (LD50/30), if the dose is received over a very short duration.

What is a Gray and what is a Sivert?




Coming up next week, Episode 11 – Looking for Radiation

Links and References

1. Next Episode – Episode 11 – Looking for Radiation
2. Previous Episode – Episode 9 – Our Natural DNA Repair Capabilities
3. Launching the Unintended Consequences Series
4. Dr. George Erickson’s Website, Tundracub.com
5. The full pdf version of Unintended Consequences
6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zbigniew_Jaworowski
7. https://www.unscear.org/
8. https://www.faculty.uci.edu/profile.cfm?faculty_id=2879
9. http://www.falloutradiation.com/files/HPANSpresentation.pdf
10. https://europepmc.org/article/pmc/pmc4975094
11. https://atomicinsights.com/low-dose-radiation-research-program-defunded-2011/
12. https://www.academia.edu/4637793/Adaptive_Response_to_Low_Dose_Radiation
13. https://www.ans.org/news/article-2875/national-academies-steers-lowdose-radiation-research-in-a-new-direction/
14. https://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Radiation_definitions.html
15. http://www.falloutradiation.com/files/HPANSpresentation.pdf
16. https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/article/life-without-radiation/
17. https://www.osti.gov/biblio/15020740-analysis-mortality-experience-amongst-nuclear-power-industry-workers-after-chronic-low-dose-exposure-ionizing-radiation
18. https://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/safety-and-security/radiation-and-health/nuclear-radiation-and-health-effects.aspx
19. https://www.amazon.com/Radiation-Health-Thormod-Henriksen-ebook/dp/B08LGH82MS
20. https://goo.gl/maps/6tC88EYMQNoPLyy9A
21. https://bravenewclimate.com/2015/01/24/what-can-we-learn-from-kerala/
22. https://www.imperial.ac.uk/mediaguide/index.asp?PeopleID=254
23. https://wsupress.wsu.edu/product/low-dose-radiation/
24. https://www.britannica.com/event/Fukushima-accident
25. https://www.dedoimedo.com/physics/banana-radioactive.html
26. https://www.nuclear-power.com/nuclear-engineering/radiation-protection/absorbed-dose/gray-unit-of-radiation-dose/
27. https://www.nuclear-power.com/nuclear-engineering/radiation-protection/equivalent-dose/sievert-unit-of-equivalent-dose/sievert-gray-becquerel-conversion-calculation/

#GeorgeErickson #UnintendedConsequences #MoltenSaltFissionEnergy #Thorium #MoltenSaltFissionTechnology #Hormesis #Russia #Chernobyl #Ukraine

Episode 9 – Our Natural DNA Repair Capabilities – Unintended Consequences – Chapter 4 Part 1

Radon and Double Strand DNA Breaks

Near the end of the 20th century, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) discovered that DNA strands can break and repair about 10,000 times per day per cell, (this is not a typo), and that a 100 mSv per year dose increases the number of breaks by only 12 per day.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Engineering Faculty

“… MIT discovered that DNA strands can break and repair about 10,000 times per day per cell, (this is not a typo), and that a 100 mSv per year dose increases the number of breaks by only 12 per day.

In addition, the majority of DNA breaks are caused by ionised oxygen atoms from the normal metabolism that constantly occurs within our cells. And because DNA is a double helix, the duplicate information in the other strand lets enzymes easily repair single strand breaks. In fact, our cells have been repairing DNA breaks since forever, and they have become extremely good at it.

DNA damage, due to environmental factors and normal metabolic processes inside the cell, occurs at a rate of 1,000 to 1,000,000 molecular lesions per cell per day. A special enzyme, DNA ligase (shown here in color), encircles the double helix to repair a broken strand of DNA. DNA ligase is responsible for repairing the millions of DNA breaks generated during the normal course of a cell’s life.

Adaptive ResponseThe vaccination effect called Hormesis

Dr. Alex Cannara explains it this way:

Radiation from unstable isotopes is always decreasing. That’s what the ‘half-life’ for an isotope expresses. Going back in time is going back to much higher radiation environments – 8 times more for U-235 when photosynthesis began to make oxygen common in air, and oxidation made elements like Uranium soluble in water. Living things were, back then, even more intimately in contact with radioactive isotopes.

“So how did life survive higher radiation, and how did it survive the increasing oxygen atmosphere, which corrodes life’s hydrocarbons into CO2 and water?

“The answer is simple: Nature evolved repair mechanisms. Each cell repairs proteins or digests badly malformed cells. Each cell repairs genetic material before it’s copied for reproduction.

“A DNA or protein molecule, or one of the many repair molecules in our cells, doesn’t know if a bond has been broken by an oxidizing radical, an alpha particle, or a microbial secretion. Our cellular-repair systems have evolved to fix defects regardless of cause. Thus, Nature has, for billions of years, been able to deal with chemical and radiation threats. Today, chemical threats have increased because of industry, but radiation threats have decreased.

Therefore, we should not be surprised by the absence of radiation deaths at Fukushima and the small death rates in and around Chernobyl.”

We have also learned that low dose irradiation of the torso is an effective treatment for malignant lymphomas. Fear of radon has been hyped by the EPA’s devotion to the LNT theory, and their efforts have greatly assisted those who sell and install radon-related equipment, whether needed or not. (Studies of every US county have revealed that those with low levels of radon actually had higher levels of lung cancer than counties with higher levels – where the incidence was lower!

But compare the two maps. The counties with less radon have more lung cancer deaths. EPA’s LNT theory is clearly wrong.

The EPA recommends remediation when radiation measures 4 picoCuries per litre of air, but an average adult is naturally radioactive at about 200,000 picoCuries. If the EPA knows this, and they should, why are they concerned about such low, natural radon levels?

The south eastern states had the lowest radon levels, but high cancer rates.

Climate Crowd Ignores a Scientific Fraud

Radon, lung cancer and the LNT model

This Radioactive Life, by Chris Patrick. Radiation is everywhere. The question is: How much?

Coming up next week, Episode 10 – Hormesis: How Radiation is Good for You

Links and References

1. Next Episode – Episode 10 – Hormesis: How Radiation is Good for You
2. Previous Episode – Episode 8 – More Beer, More Bananas
3. Launching the Unintended Consequences Series
4. Dr. George Erickson’s Website, Tundracub.com
5. The full pdf version of Unintended Consequences
6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_ligase
7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormesis
8. https://wi.mit.edu/news/forks-colliding-how-dna-breaks-during-re-replication
9. https://www.epa.gov/
10. https://enews.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/radon-risk-website.html
11. https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Cancer-mortality-rates-lung-trachea-bronchus-and-pleura-by-state-economic-area_fig1_242164660
12. https://www.wsj.com/articles/climate-crowd-ignores-a-scientific-fraud-1460758426
13. https://www.mn.uio.no/fysikk/tjenester/kunnskap/straling/radon-and-lung-cancer.pdf
14. https://www.symmetrymagazine.org/article/this-radioactive-life

#GeorgeErickson #UnintendedConsequences #MoltenSaltFissionEnergy #Thorium #MoltenSaltFissionTechnology #DNARepair #Hormesis

Episode 8 – More Beer, More Bananas – Unintended Consequences – Chapter 3 Part 2

Hiroshima Atomic Bombing 1945

All radioactive elements “decay” by emitting [either] an alpha particle (a helium nucleus), a beta particle (an electron) or a gamma ray (pure energy), eventually becoming stable elements.  An element’s “half-life” is the time needed for ½ of the atoms in the “parent” element to decay into a “daughter” isotope. For the Potassium-40 in our bananas and bodies, it is 1.2 billion years. For the Americium-241 in our smoke detectors, it’s 432 years, and for Iodine-131, it’s 8 days.  

Contrary to popular belief, elements with long half-lives, which decay slowly, present less risk than those with short half lives. 

[The half life of Thorium is 14.05 billion years – about the age of our universe]

Radioactivity is measured by the number of decays per second. One decay per second is one Becquerel (Bq). One banana produces about 15 Becquerels from its potassium-40, and smoke detectors emit 30,000 Becquerels, so when nuclear power critics fuss about 64,000 Becquerels entering the ocean at Fukushima, remember that 64,000 Becquerels is equal to 14 seconds of potassium radiation activity that occurs inside our bodies every day. (The radioactivity of normal seawater is 14,000 Becquerels per cubic meter). 

However, focusing on Becquerels without considering the  energy absorbed by the body is pointless: You can throw a bullet or you can shoot one, but only one will cause harm. 

Fortunately, radiation is easy to detect. A single  emission (1 Becquerel) will trigger a click in any decent detector, and an average adult emits 7,000 Becquerels, of which 4,400 Becquerels come from our Potassium-40, which “clicks” 4,400 times per second, for life.  

“The word ‘radioactivity’ doesn’t account for the energy propelling the emissions, so quoting large Becquerel counts  says nothing about risk. However, big numbers can frighten uninformed people, and in building their case against nuclear power, many environmentalists have been doing just that.” Dr. Timothy Maloney

As noted earlier, radiation dose, which we measure  in Sieverts, is the biologically effective energy transferred by radiation to tissue. For example, one mammogram equals 1 to 2 milliSieverts (mSv), and one dental X-ray (0.001 mSv) is nowhere near enough to cause concern. 

Let’s now consider the normal background radiation that accompanies us throughout our years. 

Worldwide Natural Radiation Ranges from 1 to 250 mSv per year

Natural “background” radiation dose rates vary widely,  averaging 1 mSv/year in Britain, 3 in the US, 7 in Finland, 10  in Spain, 12 in Denver and up to 300 mSv per year in Kerala, India and even  higher on a number of “radioactive” beaches around the world  that people flock to for health reasons. Given these statistics, one might expect cancer rates in Finland and Spain to be higher than in Britain, but Britain has higher rates of cancer than both Spain and Finland despite LNT dogma [See Episode 6 where we expose the Linear No Threshold lie].

 Dose Rates and Health 

A massive, single, whole-body radiation dose, as at Hiroshima and Nagasaki [1945 United States of America bombings of Japan], severely damages blood cell production and the digestive and nervous systems. 

A single 5,000 mSv dose is usually fatal, but if it is spread over a lifetime it is harmless because at low dose  rates, damaged cells are repaired or replaced. (Consume a  cup of salt in one sitting, and you will probably die, but do it  over six months or more, and it won’t be a problem.) 

Radiation in Perspective (1 mrem = 0.01 mSV)

How Much Radiation Is Too Much? Regulators have set exposure limits far too low, inspiring irrational fear of a cheap, clean energy source. By Robert Hargraves Sept. 21, 2021

Why Radiation is Safe below 100 mSv per year

In 1945, the U. S. exploded two atomic bombs over Japan, killing 200,000 people. Since then, 93,000 survivors have been studied for health effects. In 55 years, 10,423 of  those survivors died from cancer, which is just 573 (5%) more than the number of deaths expected by comparison with  unexposed residents.


05 Oct 1945, Nagasaki, Japan – A Japanese citizen walks through the damaged lands of Nagasaki, two months after the atomic bomb was dropped over the city. – Image by © Bettmann/CORBIS

According to Dr. Shizuyo Sutou, expert in mutations, Shujitsu University, Japan, ”Ionizing radiation is not always hazardous, and low dose radiation sometimes stimulates our beneficial defence mechanisms.”  Hiroshima/Nagasaki survivor data since 1945 shows that, on average, lifespan was extended and cancer mortality was  reduced.

Low Dose Radiation from A-bombs elongated Life span and reduced cancer mortality relative to un-irradiated individuals – Dr. Shizuyo Sutou

In addition, no excess cancer deaths have been observed in those who received radiation doses below 100 mSv. In fact, Japanese A-bomb survivors who received less than 100 mSv, have been outliving their unexposed peers. 

Subsequent studies by the United Nations Scientific  Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) have proved that below 100mSv, which is well above normal background radiation levels, it is not possible to find any  cancer excesses. 

…it is not possible to find any cancer excesses.

UNSCEAR

Linear No-threshold (LNT) vs. Hormesis: Paradigms, Assumptions, and Mathematical Conventions that Bias the Conclusions in Favor of LNT and Against hormesis

[You can see the rubbish perpetuated by the ICRP dose limits here and here. These fictitious, made-up numbers cause the deaths of millions of people each year and hobble the advancement of our civilisation – all for maintaining the oil industry’s profits.]

– TRUTH –

We are surrounded by naturally occurring radiation. Less than 1/1000th of the average American’s dose comes from nuclear power.

This yearly dose is 200 times less than a cross country flight…

…is 13 times less than a glass of beer…

… and about the same as eating one banana(21).

Are we really doing our best when it comes to managing radiation safety?

Coming up next week, Episode 9 – Our Natural DNA Repair Capabilities

Links and References

1. Next Episode – Episode 9 – Our Natural DNA Repair Capabilities 
2. Previous Episode – Episode 7 – Beer and Bananas
3. Launching the Unintended Consequences Series
4. Dr. George Erickson’s Website, Tundracub.com
5. The full pdf version of Unintended Consequences
6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorium
7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Becquerel
8. https://www.timothymaloney.net/Critique_of_100_WWS_Plan.html
9. https://www.roadmaptonowhere.com/about-us/
10. https://www.radioactivity.eu.com/site/pages/Radioactivity_food.htm
11. Ramsar, Iran natural radiation levels
12. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_bombings_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasaki
13. https://stmuscholars.org/the-weapon-that-changed-war-u-s-bombings-of-hiroshima-and-nagasaki/
14. https://www.wsj.com/articles/nuclear-regulatory-council-nrc-energy-regulator-radiation-climate-change-11632257020
15. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Shizuyo-Sutou
16. https://radiationeffects.org/low-dose-radiation-from-a-bombs-elongated-life-span-and-reduced-cancer-mortality-relative-to-un-irradiated-individuals-sutou/
17. https://www.unscear.org/
18. https://journals.lww.com/health-physics/Abstract/2019/06000/Linear_No_threshold__LNT__vs__Hormesis__Paradigms,.7.aspx
19. https://www.icrp.org/
20. http://icrpaedia.org/Dose_limits
21. https://www.nrc.gov/docs/ML0816/ML081690717.pdf
22. American Nuclear Society
23. Handbook of Radiation Measurement and Protection, edited by A. Brodsky

#GeorgeErickson #UnintendedConsequences #MoltenSaltFissionEnergy #Thorium #MoltenSaltFissionTechnology #LinearNoThreshold

Episode 6 – The Big Deceit – Unintended Consequences – Chapter 2

Radiation Response Models

“No science is immune to the infection of politics and the corruption of power.”

Jacob Bronowski

In 1928, Hermann Muller, the originator of the Linear No Threshold (LNT) theory, exposed fruit flies to 2,750 milliSieverts (mSv) of radiation in just 3 1/2 minutes, which caused gene deletions and deformities. Radiation dose, which we measure in Sieverts, is the biologically effective energy transferred to body tissue by ionizing radiation.)

Although the dose that Muller used was equivalent to receiving 1,000 mammograms in just 3.5 minutes, he called it a low dose, even though it was extremely high. (Even Japanese atomic bomb survivors didn’t receive such a large dose.)

Muller then extrapolated his results down to ZERO mSv without testing low levels of radiation and continued to promote his theory into the fifties, perhaps because he wanted to heighten fear of fallout from testing nuclear bombs. Muller argued that there is no safe level for radiation and claimed that even tiny amounts of radiation are cumulative. (According to LNT dogma, a butcher who cuts his finger fairly often will be dead in ten years from blood loss – despite his continuing to work.)

Ernst Caspari

Muller’s results were disputed by several of his colleagues, one being a researcher named Ernst Caspari, whose work Muller praised. (We learned this after Muller’s correspondence became public late in the 20th century). Muller wrongly asserted that, even at low dose rates over long times, the risk is proportionate to the dose.

In the fifties, no one knew that our cells routinely repair DNA damage, whether caused by radiation or oxidation, a normal body process, so we accepted his theory. (DNA is “short” for deoxyribonucleic acid, a complex, spiral, chain-like molecule that contains our genetic codes.)

By Zephyris – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=15027555

Muller’s theory is analogous to the earth-centered solar system that everyone “knew” was true for thousands of years, and it’s regrettable that so many still believe it. From its beginning, the LNT theory was based on a fraud, and it has been perpetuated by anti-nuclear fearmongers.

Excerpt from Muller’s Nobel acceptance speech.

So why wasn’t Muller truthful? During a radio interview on IEEE SPECTRUM’s “Techwise Conversations,” Dr. Calabrese explained it this way:

“Ernst Caspari and Kurt Stern were colleagues, and Muller was a consultant to Stern. Muller provided the fruit fly strain that Stern and his coworkers used. Stern and Muller thought there was a linear dose-response relationship even at low doses….

“In the chronic study, which was done far better in terms of research methodology than an earlier study, they found that the linear relationship was not supported, and what they observed would be supportive of a [safe] threshold dose- response relationship. This created a conflict—not for the actual researchers like Casparibut for his boss, Kurt Stern, who tried to convince Caspari that his study didn’t support the linear model because his control group values were artificially high.

Calabrese Explaining the Fraud of Linear No Threshold Theory

As recently as September 1 2020, Edward Parsese shows National Academy of Science (NAS) panel members ignored human data that challenged their already-set conclusions. This costs our planet, and our future generations Trillions of dollars and literally the future of our planet. It needs to stop.

“So Caspari… got lots of unpublished findings from Muller and put together a case that his boss was wrong. Ultimately, he got Stern to accept his findings that supported the threshold dose response. [Which actually meant that there was a threshold below which low levels of radiation were safe.]

“They sent Caspari’s paper to Muller on Nov. 6, 1946. On Nov.12 he [Muller] wrote to Stern indicating that he went over the paper, and he saw that the results were contrary to what he thought would have happened, that he couldn’t challenge the paper because Caspari was an excellent researcher, that they needed to replicate this, and that this was a significant challenge to a linear dose response because this study was the best study to date, and it was looking at the lowest dose rate that had ever been used in such a study.

“A month later, Muller went to Stockholm to accept his Nobel Prize, and in his speech, he tells the scientists, dignitaries, press… that one can no longer accept any consideration of a threshold model, that all you can really accept is the linear dose- response model. …Yet Muller had actually seen the results of a study that he was a consultant on, that was the best in showing no support for the linear model – but support for a [safe] threshold model.

“He had the audacity to actually go in front of all these dignitaries and mislead the audience. He could have said, ‘This is a critical area, and we need to do more research to try to figure this out.’ It would have been intellectually honest and the appropriate thing to say, but that’s not what he says. He tries to actually mislead the audience by saying there’s not even a remote possibility that this alternative exists, and yet he has seen it.”

Note: as of 12 Feb 2022 this interview is no longer available on IEEE Spectrum (???)

Radiation’s Big Lie
Did a Nobel laureate knowingly lie about the dangers of radiation in 1946?
BY STEVEN CHERRY // FRI, OCTOBER 07, 2011

Because Muller had also strongly (and appropriately) opposed the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, and because he wanted to persuade Congress and the American public to oppose the expansion of nuclear energy, he seems to have concluded that the end would justify his lie, even if it compromised his integrity.

National Academy Of Sciences ‘Misled The World’ When Adopting Radiation Exposure Guidelines

No safe level of radiation exposure? Researcher points to suppression of evidence on radiation effects by Nobel Laureate

US Risk Assessment Policy: A History of Deception” by Edward Calabrese (Univ. of Chicago Law Review Online, Vol. 79 [2017]

In November, 2014, Dr. John Boice, president of the National Council on Radiation Protection, stated, ”…the reason they were concerned about the risk of radiation doses all the way to zero was because they used a theory [LNT] for genetic effects that assumed that even a single hit on a single cell could cause a mutation, and they did not believe there was any such thing as a beneficial mutation.”

When the LNT model was adopted by the National Academy of Sciences in 1956, its summary stated: “Even small amounts of radiation have the power to injure.” The report, which was published in the New York Times, inflated the fear of radiation, even at extremely low levels.

NAS Adopts Fraudulent LNT Theory

However, newly discovered letters between some of the members of the National Academy of Science committee indicate that the reason for adopting the LNT model was not that small amounts of radiation might be dangerous, but that Muller’s deception (and possibly self-interest), had trumped science – with one individual writing, “I have a hard time keeping a straight face when there is talk about genetic deaths and the dangers of irradiation. Let us be honest—we are both interested in genetics research, and for the sake of it, we are willing to stretch a point when necessary… the business of genetic effects of atomic energy has produced a public scare and a consequent interest in and recognition of the importance of genetics. This is good, since it may lead to the government giving more money for genetic research.”

In 2015, while reading Dr. Siddhartha Mukherjee’s The Emperor of All Maladies, a Pulitzer Prize winner about our long battle with cancer, I came upon the following passage:

“In 1928, Dr. Hermann Muller, one of Thomas Morgan’s students, discovered that X-rays could increase the rate of mutations in fruit flies…” [Morgan, by studying an enormous number of fruit flies, had discovered that the altered genes and mutations could be carried from one generation to the next.]

“Had Morgan and Muller cooperated, they might have uncovered the link between mutations and malignancy. But they became bitter rivals Morgan refused to give Muller recognition for his theory of mutagenesis…

“Muller was sensitive and paranoid; he felt that Morgan had stolen his ideas and taken too much credit. In 1933, having moved his lab to Texas, Muller walked into a nearby woods and swallowed a roll of sleeping pills in an attempt at suicide. He survived, but was haunted by anxiety and depression.”

Knowing this, I wonder if Muller’s need for recognition and his resentment of Morgan, who received the Nobel Prize for his work on fruit fly genetics in 1933, might have caused him to hide the work of Ernst Caspari and others because it would have jeopardised his “fifteen minutes of fame.”

Muller received his Nobel Prize in 1946, but his deception has promoted the fear of all forms of radiation, however feeble. In addition, it has caused the deaths of millions and accelerated Climate Change by stunting the growth of CO2-free nuclear power, which has required us to burn huge amounts of polluting,health-damaging coal, oil and natural gas.

(Muller’s claim that tiny amounts of radiation are cumulative is like arguing that 50 jumps off of a one-foot step will be as damaging as one jump from a 50-foot cliff.)

For the great enemy of the truth is often not the lie – deliberate, contrived, and dishonest – but the myth – persistent, persuasive, and unrealistic. Too often we hold fast to the clichés of our forebears. We subject all facts to a prefabricated set of interpretations. We enjoy the comfort of opinion without the discomfort of thought.

US President John F Kennedy 1960-1963

“To overturn orthodoxy is no easier in science than in philosophy or religion.” Ruth Hubbard

Due largely to LNT, only a few new nuclear power plants have been designed and built since the NRC was created. There are at least 1,000 papers that prove LNT wrong—all of them ignored by NRC and EPA. On average the NRC creates one new regulation per day, and it can cost a billion dollars just to get approval for a test reactor of a new design.

Coming up next week, Episode 7 – Beer and Bananas.

Links and References

1. Next Episode – Episode 7 – Beer and Bananas 
2. Previous Episode – Episode 5 – The Big Melt and the Acid Bath
3. Launching the Unintended Consequences Series
4. Dr. George Erickson on LinkedIn
5. Dr. George Erickson’s Website, Tundracub.com
6. The full pdf version of Unintended Consequences
7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacob_Bronowski
8. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Ascent_of_Man
9. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linear_no-threshold_model
10. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sievert
11. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_Caspari
12. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA
13. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Calabrese
14. https://www.umass.edu/sphhs/person/edward-j-calabrese
15. https://www.linkedin.com/in/ed-calabrese-697a1119/
16. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-rKQ-OPmjE4
17. https://www.umass.edu/news/article/new-calabrese-paper-continues-criticism
18. https://spectrum.ieee.org/podcast/at-work/education/radiations-big-lie/
19. National Academy Of Sciences ‘Misled The World’
20. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/09/110920163320.htm
21. US Risk Assessment Policy: A History of Deception” by Edward Calabrese
22. https://ncrponline.org/2018-council-members/
23. https://www.linkedin.com/in/john-boice-29b91a14/
24. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siddhartha_Mukherjee
25. https://www.linkedin.com/in/siddhartha-mukherjee-19b6b8126/
26. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruth_Hubbard
27. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1559325818779651
28. https://www.heartland.org/publications-resources/publications/low-level-radiation-benefits-human-health
29. https://21sci-tech.com/articles/nuclear.html
30. https://radiationeffects.org/
31. https://www.x-lnt.org/
32. Molly Cheshire Interviews Scientist on Radon and LOW Cancer Rates!
33. https://atomicinsights.com/atomic-show-224-dr-john-boice-ncrp/
34. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2663584/
35. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27493264/
36. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29475999/
37. https://bimedis.com/latest-news/browse/217/reexamining-the-linear-no-threshold-model

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